By fracture or fracture of a bone we mean the rupture of its integrity. The mechanism of fracture can be direct or indirect. It is often associated with a traumatic accident – sports, household, traffic. Risk factors for fractures are osteoporosis and diabetes. The most commonly affected are the bones of the hands, forearms, clavicle, as well as the bones of the lower leg and foot. With age, fractures of the neck of the hip joint due to falls, as well as vertebral fractures are common. According to the form of fracture, fractures are: transverse, spiral, multifragment, compression, open. Fractures are always accompanied by varying degrees of soft tissue damage. The affected area has lost motor and support functions.
As a result of the fracture itself, in addition to disrupting the integrity of the bone, there is also a soft tissue trauma with bleeding. The combination of simultaneous involvement of bone and soft tissues leads to the following pathological changes:
- affected traffic volume
- affected motor and support function
For each fracture, placement and immobilisation are clinical procedures necessary for bone adhesion. Examination by an orthopedist, X-ray, immobilisation of the affected area are part of the clinical procedures that the victim goes through. More complex fractures require surgical interventions involving the placement of metal osteosynthesis / implants and a longer period of immobilisation. Open fractures carry a high risk of infections, rupture of nerves, vessels and tendons, which can lead to permanent damage and usually require a longer recovery period. The treatment is conservative or operative. The correct and adequate response in the presence of a fracture includes immobilisation, elevation and application of ice to the fracture site.
The repair process in fractures takes place in three phases, and the restoration of the accompanying soft tissue damage is decisive for the final result:
- phase of inflammation – occurs during the acute phase. It forms a hematoma, which transforms into a cell bridge and fills the fracture site.
- bone recovery phase – begins after the end of the acute phase and lasts up to about 50 days. Bone regeneration takes place sequentially through connective tissue, fibrocartilage and bone callus.
- bone remodelling phase – lasts up to 3-4 months after receiving the fracture. The remodelling of the bone callus is carried out under the influence of mechanical stress until the complete restoration of the bone structure.
The duration of the phases depends on the severity of the injury, the general health status, the patient’s motor activity and the duration of immobilisation required for bone adhesion. This causes serious damage to the motor activity of the affected limb. Here we must mention the need to move the injured limb by a rehabilitator / physiotherapist immediately after removing the immobilisation. This will contribute to the maximum functional recovery by gradually restoring:
- impaired circulation;
- joint mobility, restoring the elasticity of the joint capsule, ligaments, tendons and fascia;
- weakened muscles;
- support function, balance and coordination
As mentioned, the fall is after the most common causes of fractures, especially in the elderly. Here are some simple rules that can be used:
- Maintain good eyesight.
- Train balance, coordination and balance.
- Do low-intensity workouts with light weights.
- Use aids if you need them.
- Carefully choose your shoes, looking at the material from which the sole and the gripper are made.
- Avoid walking on wet surfaces and dimly lit areas.
- If you lose your balance, try to contract slightly and relax your muscles during the fall. This will ensure greater depreciation.
- The diagonal fall will protect your larger bone structures from damage.
- Eat a balanced and sensible diet. If possible, avoid the use of alcohol and cigarettes.